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May 21st

May 21st

# Matrix Operations

## 2.1 Matrix Operations

Matrix Notation:

Two ways to denote m*n matrix A:

In terms of the columns of A:

In terms of the entries of A:

Main diagonal entries:___________________

Zero matrix :

THEOREM 1

Let A, B, and C be matrices of the same size, and let r and s be scalars. Then

Matrix Multiplication

Multiplying B and x transforms x into the vector Bx. In turn, if we multiply A and Bx, we transform
Bx into A(Bx) . So A(Bx) is the composition of two mappings.

Define the product AB so that A(Bx)=(AB)x.

Suppose A is m*n and B is n*p where

Then

and

Therefore,

and by defining

we have A(Bx)=(AB)x.

EXAMPLE: Compute AB where

Solution :

Note that Ab1 is a linear combination of the columns of A and Ab2 is a linear combination of the
columns
of A.

Each column of AB is a linear combination of the columns of A
using weights from the corresponding columns of B.

EXAMPLE: If A is 4*3 and B is 3*2, then what are the sizes of AB and BA?

Solution:

BA would be

which is __________________.

If A is m*n and B is n*p, then AB is m*p.

Row-Column Rule for Computing AB (alternate method)

The definition

is good for theoretical work.

When A and B have small sizes, the following method is more efficient when working by hand.

If AB is defined, let (AB)ij denote the entry in the ith row and jth column of AB. Then

EXAMPLE

Compute AB, if it is defined.

Solution: Since A is 2*3 and B is 3*2, then AB is defined and AB is _____*_____.

THEOREM 2

Let A be m*n and let B and C have sizes for which the indicated sums and products are
defined.

 (associative law of multiplication ) (left - distributive law) (right-distributive law) for any scalar r (identity for matrix multiplication)

WARNINGS
Properties above are ana logous to properties of real numbers . But NOT ALL real number
properties correspond to matrix properties.

1. It is not the case that AB always equal BA. (see Example 7, page 114)
2. Even if AB=AC, then B may not equal C. (see Exercise 10, page 116)
3. It is possible for AB=0 even if A≠0 and B≠0. (see Exercise 12, page 116)

Powers of A

EXAMPLE:

If A is m*n, the transpose of A is the n*m matrix, denoted by AT, whose columns are formed
from the corresponding rows of A.

EXAMPLE:

EXAMPLE:

Let Compute AB,

Solution:

THEOREM 3

Let A and B denote matrices whose sizes are appropriate for the fol lowing sums and
products.

a. (I.e., the transpose of AT is A

c. For any scalar r,

(I.e. the transpose of a product of matrices equals the product of their
transposes in reverse order . )

EXAMPLE: Prove that

Solution: By Theorem 3d,

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