On the ACT, undefined almost always means division
by zero. The expression is a/bc undefined if
either b or c equals 0.
A real number is a number that has a location on
the number line. On the ACT, imaginary numbers
are numbers that involve the square root of a negative
number. is an imaginary number.
Integers are whole numbers; they include negative
whole numbers and zero.
A rational number is a number that can be
expressed as a ratio of two integers. Irrational
numbers are real numbers—they have locations
on the number line—they just can’t be expressed
precisely as a fraction or decimal. For the purposes
of the ACT, the most important irrational
numbers are and π.
5. ADDING/SUBTRACTING SIGNED NUMBERS
To add a positive and a negative, first ignore the
signs and find the positive difference between the
number parts. Then attach the sign of the original
number with the larger number part. For example,
to add 23 and –34, first we ignore the minus sign
and find the positive difference between 23 and
34—that’s 11. Then we attach the sign of the number
with the larger number part—in this case it’s
the minus sign from the –34. So, 23 + (–34) = –11.
Make subtraction situations simpler by turning
them into addition. For example, think of –17 –
(–21) as –17 + (+21).
To add or subtract a string of positives and negatives,
first turn everything into addition. Then combine the positives and negatives so that the
string is reduced to the sum of a single positive
number and a single negative number.
6. MULTIPLYING/DIVIDING SIGNED NUMBERS
To multiply and/or divide positives and negatives,
treat the number parts as usual and attach a negative
sign if there were originally an odd number
of negatives. To multiply –2, –3, and –5, first multiply
the number parts: 2*3*5 = 30.Then go back and
note that there were three—an odd number—negatives,
so the product is negative : (–2)*(–3)*(–5) = –30.
When performing multiple operations, remember
PEMDAS, which means Parentheses first, then
Exponents, then Multiplication and Division
(left to right), then Addition and Subtraction (left
In the expression ,
with the parentheses: (5 – 3) = 2. Then do the
exponent: 2^2 = 4. Now the expression is: 9 – 2*4
+ 6/3. Next do the multiplication and division
to get 9 – 8 + 2, which equals 3.
8. ABSOLUTE VALUE
Treat absolute value signs a lot like parentheses.
Do what’s inside them first and then take the
absolute value of the result. Don’t take the absolute
value of each piece between the bars before calculating.
In order to calculate |(–12) + 5 – (–4)|–|5 +
(–10)|, first do what’s inside the bars to get:|–3|–
|–5|, which is 3 – 5, or –2.
9. COUNTING CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS
To count consecutive integers, subtract the smallest
from the largest and add 1. To count the integers
from 13 through 31, subtract: 31 – 13 = 18.
Then add 1: 18 + 1 = 19.
The factors of integer n are the positive integers
that divide into n with no remainder. The multiples
of n are the integers that n divides into with no
remainder. 6 is a factor of 12, and 24 is a multiple
of 12. 12 is both a factor and a multiple of itself.
11. PRIME FACTORIZATION
A prime number is a positive integer that has
exactly two positive integer factors: 1 and the integer
itself. The first eight prime numbers are 2, 3, 5,
7, 11, 13, 17, and 19.
To find the prime factorization of an integer, just
keep breaking it up into factors until all the factors
are prime. To find the prime factorization of
36, for example, you could begin by breaking it
12. RELATIVE PRIMES
To de termine whether two integers are relative
primes, break them both down to their prime factorizations.
For example: 35 = 5*7, and 54 = 2*3*3*3.
They have no prime factors in common, so 35 and 54 are relative primes.
13. COMMON MULTIPLE
You can always get a common multiple of two
numbers by multiplying them, but, unless the two
numbers are relative primes, the product will not
be the least common multiple. For example, to
find a common multiple for 12 and 15, you could
just multiply: 12*15 = 180.
14. LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE (LCM)
To find the least common multiple, check out the multiples of the larger number until you find one
that’s also a multiple of the smaller. To find the
LCM of 12 and 15, begin by taking the multiples of
15: 15 is not divisible by 12; 30’s not; nor is 45. But
the next multiple of 15, 60, is divisible by 12, so it’s
15. GREATEST COMMON FACTOR (GCF)
To find the greatest common factor, break down
both numbers into their prime factorizations and
take all the prime factors they have in common.
36 = 2*2*3*3, and 48 = 2*2*2*2*3.
What they have in common is two 2s and one 3, so
the GCF is = 2*2*3 = 12.
To predict whether a sum, difference, or product will
be even or odd, just take simple numbers like 1 and
2 and see what happens. There are rules—“odd
times even is even,” for example—but there’s no need
to memorize them. What happens with one set of
numbers generally happens with all similar sets.
17. MULTIPLES OF 2 AND 4
An integer is divisible by 2 if the last digit is even.
An integer is divisible by 4 if the last two digits
form a multiple of 4. The last digit of 562 is 2,
which is even, so 562 is a multiple of 2. The last
two digits make 62, which is not divisible by 4, so
562 is not a multiple of 4.
18. MULTIPLES OF 3 AND 9
An integer is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits
is divisible by 3. An integer is divisible by 9 if the
sum of its digits is divisible by 9. The sum of the
digits in 957 is 21, which is divisible by 3 but not
by 9, so 957 is divisible by 3 but not 9.
19. MULTIPLES OF 5 AND 10
An integer is divisible by 5 if the last digit is 5 or 0.
An integer is divisible by 10 if the last digit is 0. The
last digit of 665 is 5, so 665 is a multiple 5 but not a
multiple of 10.
The remainder is the whole number left over after
division. 487 is 2 more than 485, which is a multiple
of 5, so when 487 is divided by 5, the remainder
will be 2.
Fractions and Decimals
21. REDUCING FRACTIONS
To reduce a fraction to lowest terms , factor out
and cancel all factors the numerator and denominator
have in common.
22. ADDING/SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS
To add or subtract fractions, first find a common
denominator, and then add or subtract the
23. MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS
To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators
and multiply the denominators.
24. DIVIDING FRACTIONS
To divide fractions, invert the second one and
25. CONVERTING A MIXED NUMBER TO AN
To convert a mixed number to an improper fraction, multiply the whole number part by the
denominator, then add the numerator. The result
is the new numerator (over the same denominator).
To convert , first multiply 7 by 3, then add
1, to get the new numerator of 22. Put that over the
same denominator, 3, to get 22/3
26. CONVERTING AN IMPROPER
FRACTION TO A MIXED NUMBER
To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number,
divide the denominator into the numerator to
get a whole number quotient with a remainder.
The quotient becomes the whole number part of
the mixed number, and the remainder becomes
the new numerator—with the same denominator.
For example, to convert 108/5 first divide 5 into 108,
which yields 21 with a remainder of 3. Therefore,
To find the reciprocal of a fraction, switch the
numerator and the denominator. The reciprocal of
3/7 is 7/3. The reciprocal of 5 is 1/5. The product
of reciprocals is 1.
28. COMPARING FRACTIONS
One way to compare fractions is to re-express them
with a common denominator.
is greater than 20/28 ,
3/4 is greater than 5/7.
Another way to compare fractions is to convert
them both to decimals. 3/4 converts to .75, and
5/7 converts to approximately .714.
29. CONVERTING FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS
To convert a fraction to a decimal, divide the bottom
into the top. To convert 5/8 divide 8 into 5,
30. REPEATING DECIMAL
To find a particular digit in a repeating decimal,
note the number of digits in the cluster that
repeats. If there are 2 digits in that cluster, then
every 2nd digit is the same. If there are 3 digits in
that cluster, then every 3rd digit is the same. And
so on. For example, the decimal equivalent of 1/27 is
.037037037..., which is best written
There are 3 digits in the repeating cluster, so every
3rd digit is the same: 7. To find the 50th digit, look
for the multiple of 3 just less than 50—that’s 48.
The 48th digit is 7, and with the 49th digit the pattern
repeats with 0. The 50th digit is 3.
31. IDENTIFYING THE PARTS AND THE WHOLE
The key to solving most story problems involving
fractions and percents is to identify the part and
the whole. Usually you’ll find the part associated
with the verb is/are and the whole associated with
the word of. In the sentence, “Half of the boys are
blonds,” the whole is the boys (“of the boys”), and
the part is the blonds (“are blonds”).
32. PERCENT FORMULA
Whether you need to find the part, the whole, or the
percent, use the same formula:
Part = Percent*Whole
Example: What is 12% of 25? Setup: Part = .12*25 Example: 15 is 3% of what number? Setup: 15 = .03*Whole Example: 45 is what percent of 9? Setup: 45 = Percent *9
33. PERCENT INCREASE AND DECREASE
To increase a number by a percent, add the percent
to 100%, convert to a decimal, and multiply.
To increase 40 by 25%, add 25% to 100%, convert
125% to 1.25, and multiply by 40. 1.25*40 = 50.
34. FINDING THE ORIGINAL WHOLE
To find the original whole before a percent
increase or decrease, set up an equation. Think of
a 15% increase over x as 1.15x
Example: After a 5% increase, the population
was 59,346.What was the population
before the increase? Setup: 1.05x = 59,346
35. COMBINED PERCENT INCREASE AND
To determine the combined effect of multiple percents
increase and/or decrease, start with 100 and
see what happens.
Example: A price went up 10% one year, and
the new price went up 20% the next
year. What was the combined percent
Setup: First year: 100 + (10% of 100) = 110.
Second year: 110 + (20% of 110) =
132. That’s a combined 32% increase.
Ratios, Proportions, and Rates
36. SETTING UP A RATIO
To find a ratio, put the number associated with the
word of on top and the quantity associated with
the word to on the bottom and reduce. The ratio
of 20 oranges to 12 apples is 20/12 which reduces to 5/3.
37. PART-TO-PART AND PART-TO-WHOLE
If the parts add up to the whole, a part-to-part
ratio can be turned into two part-to-whole ratios
by putting each number in the original ratio over
the sum of the numbers. If the ratio of males to
females is 1 to 2, then the males-to-people ratio is
females-to-people ratio is
of all the people are
38. SOLVING A PROPORTION
To solve a proportion, cross multiply:
To solve a rates problem, use the units to keep
Example: If snow is falling at the rate of 1 foot
every 4 hours, how many inches of
snow will fall in 7 hours?
40. AVERAGE RATE
Average rate is not simply the average of the rates.
Average A per B =
Average Speed =
To find the average speed for 120 miles at 40 mph
and 120 miles at 60 mph, don’t just average the
two speeds. First figure out the total distance and
the total time. The total distance is 120 + 120 =
240 miles. The times are 3 hours for the first leg
and 2 hours for the second leg, or 5 hours total.
The average speed, then, is 240/5 = 48 miles per hour.
41. AVERAGE FORMULA
To find the average of a set of numbers, add them
up and divide by the number of numbers.
To find the average of the five numbers 12, 15, 23,
40, and 40, first add them: 12 + 15 + 23 + 40 + 40
= 130. Then divide the sum by 5: 130/5 = 26.
42. AVERAGE OF EVENLY SPACED NUMBERS
To find the average of evenly spaced numbers, just
average the smallest and the largest. The average
of all the integers from 13 through 77 is the same
as the average of 13 and 77.
43. USING THE AVERAGE TO FIND THE SUM
Sum = (Average)*(Number of terms)
If the average of ten numbers is 50, then they add
up to 10*50, or 500.
44. FINDING THE MISSING NUMBER
To find a missing number when you’re given the
average, use the sum. If the average of four numbers
is 7, then the sum of those four numbers is
4*7, or 28. Suppose that three of the numbers
are 3, 5, and 8. These numbers add up to 16 of that
28, which leaves 12 for the fourth number.
Possibilities and Probability
45. COUNTING THE POSSIBILITIES
The fundamental counting principle: if there are m ways one event can happen and n ways a second
event can happen, then there are m*n ways for
the two events to happen. For example, with 5
shirts and 7 pairs of pants to choose from, you can
put together 5*7 = 35 different outfits.
If you have 12 shirts in a drawer and 9 of them are
white, the probability of picking a white shirt at
random is 9/12 = 3/4. This probability can also be
expressed as .75 or 75%.
The product of square roots is equal to the square root of the product:
The quotient of square roots is equal to the square
root of the quotient:
52. EVALUATING AN EXPRESSION
To evaluate an algebraic expression, plug in the
given values for the unknowns and calculate
according to PEMDAS. To find the value of x^2
5x – 6 when x = –2, plug in –2 for x :
53. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING MONOMIALS
To combine like terms, keep the variable part
unchanged while adding or subtracting the coefficients.
54. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING
To add or subtract polynomials, combine like terms.
55. MULTIPLYING MONOMIALS
To multiply monomials, multiply the coefficients and
the variables separately.
56. MULTIPLYING BINOMIALS—FOIL
To multiply binomials, use FOIL. To multiply (x +
3) by (x + 4), first multiply the First terms: x*x=x^2.
Next the Outer terms: x*4 = 4x. Then the
Inner terms: 3*x = 3x. And finally the Last terms:
3*4 = 12. Then add and combine like terms:
57. MULTIPLYING OTHER POLYNOMIALS
FOIL works only when you want to multiply two
binomials. If you want to multiply polynomials
with more than two terms, make sure you multiply
each term in the first polynomial by each term in
Factoring Algebraic Expressions
58. FACTORING OUT A COMMON DIVISOR
A factor common to all terms of a polynomial can
be factored out. All three terms in the polynomial
contain a factor of 3x. Pulling out
the common factor yields
59. FACTORING THE DIFFERENCE OF SQUARES
One of the test maker’s favorite factorables is the difference of squares.
60. FACTORING THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL
Learn to recognize polynomials that are squares of
For example,factors to
61. FACTORING OTHER POLYNOMIALS—FOIL
To factor a quadratic expression, think about
what binomials you could use FOIL on to get that
quadratic expression. To factor x^2–5x+6, think
about what First terms will produce x^2, what Last
terms will produce +6, and what Outer and Inner
terms will produce –5x . Common sense—and
trial and error—lead you to (x – 2)(x – 3).
62. SIMPLIFYING AN ALGEBRAIC FRACTION
Simplifying an algebraic fraction is a lot like
a numerical fraction. The general idea is
to find factors common to the numerator and
denominator and cancel them. Thus, simplifying
an algebraic fraction begins with factoring.
first factor the numerator and denominator:
Canceling x + 3 from the numerator and denominator leaves
To solve an equation, do whatever is necessary to
both sides to isolate the variable. To solve 5x – 12
=–2x+9, first get all the x’s on one side by
adding 2x to both sides: 7x – 12=9. Then add 12
to both sides: 7x=21, then divide both sides by 7
to get: x = 3.
64. SOLVING “IN TERMS OF”
To solve an equation for one variable in terms of
another means to isolate the one variable on one
side of the equation, leaving an expression containing
the other variable on the other side. To solve 3x
– 10y =– 5x+6y for x in terms of y, isolate x:
65. TRANSLATING FROM ENGLISH INTO
To translate from English into algebra, look for the
key words and systematically turn phrases into
algebraic expressions and sentences into equations.
Be careful about order, especially when subtraction
is called for.
Example: The charge for a phone call is r cents
for the first 3 minutes and s cents for
each minute thereafter. What is the
cost, in cents, of a call lasting exactly t
minutes? (t > 3)
Setup: The charge begins with r, and then
something more is added, depending
on the length of the call. The amount
added is s times the number of minutes
past 3 minutes. If the total number
of minutes is t, then the number
of minutes past 3 is t – 3. So the charge
is r + s(t – 3).
66. SOLVING A QUADRATIC EQUATION
To solve a quadratic equation, put it in the
form, factor the left side (if you
can), and set each factor equal to 0 separately to get the two solutions . To solve , first
rewrite it as . Then factor the left
Sometimes the left side might not be obviously
factorable. You can always use the quadratic formula.
Just plug in the coefficients a, b, and c from
into the formula:
To solve plug a = 1, b
= 4, and
c = 2 into the formula:
67. SOLVING A SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS
You can solve for two variables only if you have two
distinct equations. Two forms of the same equation
will not be adequate. Combine the equations in
such a way that one of the variables cancels out. To
solve the two equations 4x+3y=8 and x+y = 3,
multiply both sides of the second equation by –3
to get: –3x – 3y =–9. Now add the equations; the
3y and the –3y cancel out, leaving: x = –1. Plug that
back into either one of the original equations and
you’ll find that y = 4.
68. SOLVING AN EQUATION THAT
INCLUDES ABSOLUTE VALUE SIGNS
To solve an equation that includes absolute value
signs, think about the two different cases. For
example, to solve the equation |x – 12|=3, think
of it as two equations:
69. SOLVING AN INEQUALITY
To solve an inequality, do whatever is necessary to
both sides to isolate the variable. Just remember
that when you multiply or divide both sides by a
negative number, you must reverse the sign. To
solve –5x + 7 < –3, subtract 7 from both sides to
get: –5x < –10. Now divide both sides by –5,
remembering to reverse the sign: x > 2.
70. GRAPHING INEQUALITIES
To graph a range of values, use a thick, black line
over the number line, and at the end(s) of the
range, use a solid circle if the point is included or
an open circle if the point is not included. The figure
here shows the graph of –3 < x ≤ 5.
71. FINDING THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO
To find the distance between points, use the
Pythagorean theorem or special right triangles.
The difference between the x’s is one leg and the
difference between the y’s is the other leg.
In the figure above,
is the hypotenuse of a 3-4-
5 triangle, so = 5.
You can also use the distance formula:
To find the distance between R(3, 6) and S(5, –2):
The slope of the line that contains the points A(2, 3) and
B(0, –1) is:
73. USING AN EQUATION TO FIND THE SLOPE
To find the slope of a line from an equation, put
the equation into the slope-intercept form:
y = mx + b
The slope is m. To find the slope of the equation
3x + 2y = 4, re-express it:
The slope is -3/2
74. USING AN EQUATION TO FIND
To find the y-intercept, you can either put the
equation into y = mx + b (slope-intercept)
form—in which case b is the y-intercept—or you
can just plug x = 0 into the equation and solve for
y. To find the x-intercept, plug y = 0 into the equation
and solve for x.
75. EQUATION FOR A CIRCLE
The equation for a circle of radius r and centered at (h,
The figure below shows the graph of the equation
76. EQUATION FOR A PARABOLA
The graph of an equation in the form
is a parabola. The figure below
shows the graph of seven pairs of numbers that
satisfy the equation
77. EQUATION FOR AN ELLIPSE
The graph of an equation in the form
is an ellipse with 2a as the sum of the focal radii
and with foci on the x-axis at (0, –c) and (0, c), where
The figure below shows the graph of :
The foci are at (–3, 0) and (3, 0). PR is the major
axis, and QS is the minor axis. This ellipse is
symmetrical about both the x- and y-axes.
Lines and Angles
78. INTERSECTING LINES
When two lines intersect, adjacent angles are
supplementary and vertical angles are equal.
In the figure above, the angles marked a°and b°are
adjacent and supplementary, so a + b = 180.
Furthermore, the angles marked a°and 60°are vertical
and equal, so a = 60.
79. PARALLEL LINES AND TRANSVERSALS
A transversal across parallel lines forms four
equal acute angles and four equal obtuse angles.
Here, line 1 is parallel to line 2. Angles a, c, e, and
g are obtuse, so they are all equal. Angles b, d, f,
and h are acute, so they are all equal.
Furthermore, any of the acute angles is supplementary
to any of the obtuse angles. Angles a
and h are supplementary, as are b and e, c and f,
and so on.
80. INTERIOR ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE
The three angles of any triangle add up to 180°.
In the figure above, x + 50 + 100 = 180, so x = 30.
81. EXTERIOR ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE
An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum
of the remote interior angles.
In the figure above, the exterior angle labeled x°is
equal to the sum of the remote interior angles:
x = 50 + 100 = 150.
The three exterior angles of any triangle add up to 360º.
In the figure above, a + b + c = 360.
82. SIMILAR TRIANGLES
Similar triangles have the same shape: corresponding
angles are equal and corresponding sides
The triangles above are similar because they have
the same angles. The 3 corresponds to the 4 and the
6 corresponds to the s.
83. AREA OF A TRIANGLE
Area of Triangle = 1/2(base)(height)
The height is the perpendicular distance between
the side that’s chosen as the base and the opposite
In the triangle above, 4 is the height when the 7 is
chosen as the base.
Area = 1/2bh = 1/2(7)(4) = 14
84. PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
For all right triangles:
If one leg is 2 and the other leg is 3, then:
85. SPECIAL RIGHT TRIANGLES
If a right triangle’s leg-to-leg ratio is 3:4, or if
the leg-to-hypotenuse ratio is 3:5 or 4:5, then it’s
a 3-4-5 triangle and you don’t need to use the
Pythagorean theorem to find the third side. Just
figure out what multiple of 3-4-5 it is.
In the right triangle above, one leg is 30 and the
hypotenuse is 50. This is 10 times 3-4-5. The
other leg is 40.
If a right triangle’s leg-to-leg ratio is 5:12, or if
the leg-to-hypotenuse ratio is 5:13 or 12:13, then
it’s a 5-12-13 triangle and you don’t need to use
the Pythagorean theorem to find the third side.
Just figure out what multiple of 5-12-13 it is.
Here one leg is 36 and the hypotenuse is 39. This
is 3 times 5-12-13. The other leg is 15.
The sides of a 30-60-90 triangle are in a ratio of
. You don’t need to use the Pythagorean
If the hypotenuse is 6, then the shorter leg is half
that, or 3; and then the longer leg is equal to the
short leg times
The sides of a 45-45-90 triangle are in a ratio of
If one leg is 3, then the other leg is also 3, and the
hypotenuse is equal to a leg times
86. SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS
A rectangle is a four-sided figure with four right
angles. Opposite sides are equal. Diagonals are
Quadrilateral ABCD above is shown to have three
right angles. The fourth angle therefore also
measures 90°, and ABCD is a rectangle. The
perimeter of a rectangle is equal to the sum of the
lengths of the four sides, which is equivalent to
2(length + width).
A parallelogram has two pairs of parallel sides.
Opposite sides are equal. Opposite angles are
equal. Consecutive angles add up to 180°.
In the figure above, s is the length of the side
opposite the 3, so s = 3.
A square is a rectangle with 4 equal sides.
If PQRS is a square, all sides are the same length
as QR. The perimeter of a square is equal to four
times the length of one side.
A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with one pair of
parallel sides and one pair of nonparallel sides.
In the quadrilateral above, sides EF and GH are
parallel, while sides EH and GF are not parallel.
EFGH is therefore a trapezoid.
87. AREAS OF SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS
Area of Rectangle = Length*Width
The area of a 7-by-3 rectangle is 7*3 = 21.
Area of Parallelogram = Base*Height
The area of a parallelogram with a height of 4
and a base of 6 is 4*6 = 24.
Area of Square = (Side)^2
The area of a square with sides of length 5 is 5^2 = 25.
Area of Trapezoid =
Think of it as the average of the bases (the two
parallel sides) times the height (the length of the
In the trapezoid ABCD above, you can use side AD
for the height. The average of the bases is
so the area is 5*8, or 40.
88. INTERIOR ANGLES OF A POLYGON
The sum of the measures of the interior angles
of a polygon is (n – 2)*180, where n is the
number of sides.
Sum of the angles = (n – 2)*180 degrees
The eight angles of an octagon, for example, add
up to (8 – 2)*180 = 1,080.
To find one angle of a regular polygon, divide the
sum of the angles by the number of angles (which
is the same as the number of sides). The formula,
Interior angle =
Angle A of the regular octagon
above measures 1,080/8 degrees.
89. CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE
Circumference of a circle = 2πr
Here, the radius is 3, and so the circumference is 2π(3) =
90. LENGTH OF AN ARC
An arc is a piece of the circumference. If n is the
measure of the arc’s central angle, then the formula
Length of an Arc =
In the figure above, the radius is 5 and the measure
of the central angle is 72°. The arc length is
72/360 or 1/5 of the circumference:
91. AREA OF A CIRCLE
Area of a circle = πr^2
The area of the circle above is π(4)^2 = 16π.
92. AREA OF A SECTOR
A sector is a piece of the area of a circle. If n is
the measure of the sector’s central angle, then the
Area of a Sector =
In the figure above, the radius is 6 and the measure
of the sector’s central angle is 30°. The sector
has 30/360 or 1/12 of the area of the circle:
93. SURFACE AREA OF A RECTANGULAR SOLID
The surface of a rectangular solid consists of 3
pairs of identical faces. To find the surface area,
find the area of each face and add them up. If the
length is l, the width is w, and the height is h, the
Surface Area = 2lw + 2wh + 2lh
The surface area of the box above is:
94. VOLUME OF A RECTANGULAR SOLID
Volume of a Rectangular Solid = lwh
The volume of a 4-by-5-by-6 box is 4*5*6 = 120
A cube is a rectangular solid with length, width,
and height all equal. If e is the length of an edge of
a cube, the volume formula is:
Volume of a Cube = e^3
The volume of the cube above is 2^3 = 8.
95. VOLUME OF OTHER SOLIDS
Volume of a Cylinder = π(r^2)h
The volume of a cylinder where r = 2, and h = 5 is
π(2^2)(5) = 20π
Volume of a Cone = (1/3)πr2h
The volume of a cone where r = 3, and h = 6 is:
Volume of a Sphere = (4/3)πr^3
If the radius of a sphere is 3, then:
Volume = (4/3)π(3^3) = 36π
96. SINE, COSINE, AND TANGENT OF ACUTE
To find the sine, cosine, or tangent of an acute
angle, use SOHCAHTOA, which is an abbreviation
for the following definitions:
In the figure above:
97. COTANGENT, SECANT, AND COSECANT OF
Think of the cotangent, secant, and cosecant as
the reciprocals of the SOHCAHTOA functions:
To find a trigonometric function of an angle
greater than 90°, sketch a circle of radius 1 and
centered at the origin of the coordinate grid. Start
from the point (1, 0) and rotate the appropriate
number of degrees counterclockwise.
In the “unit circle” setup on the previous page, the
basic trigonometric functions are defined in terms
of the coordinates a and b :
Example: sin 210° = ? Setup: Sketch a 210° angle in the coordinate
Because the triangle shown in the figure above is
a 30-60-90 right triangle, we can determine that
the coordinates of point P are
The sine is therefore –1/2.
99. SIMPLIFYING TRIGONOMETRIC
To simplify trigonometric expressions, use the
inverse function definitions along with the fundamental
Setup: The numerator equals 1, so:
100. GRAPHING TRIGONOMETRIC
To graph trigonometric functions, use the x-axis
for the angle and the y-axis for the value of the
trigonometric function. Use special angles—0°,
30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 135°, 150°, 180°, etc.—to
plot key points.
The figure above shows a portion of the graph of
y = sin x.